Diversity

     Chapter 1
     Chapter 2
     Chapter 3

History

     Chapter 4
     Chapter 5
     Chapter 6

Theory

     Chapter 7
     Chapter 8

     Chapter 9

Practice 

     Chapter 10
     Chapter 11

     Chapter 12

Politics 

     Chapter 13
     Chapter 14

     Chapter 15

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James Crawford's Language Policy Web Site

ERIC Digests

Government Sources

Online Journals

Professional Organizations

Resource Centers

Web Sites of Interest

------------

Educating English Learners

by James Crawford

ONLINE RESOURCE GUIDE

VERSION 5.1, 2006

LINKS UPDATED, 2015

 

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CHAPTER 1
Bilingualism, American Style

Census Bureau
Gateway to Census 2000 
American Community Survey 
Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States (1999)
Language Use
Profile of Demographic, Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000

Current Population Reports
The Asian and Pacific Islander Population in the United States, March 2002

The Foreign-Born Population in the United States, 2003

The Hispanic Population in the United States, March 2002
Profile of the Foreign-Born Population, 2000
School Enrollment – Social and Economic Characteristics of Students, 2003

Census 2000 Briefs
The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000
The Asian Population: 2000
The Hispanic Population: 2000
Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000
The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2000
Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000
The Two or More Races Population: 2000 
 

2000 Language Data
Home Language Use and English Ability, by State, Ages 5+
Home Language Use and English Ability, by State, Ages 5–17
Languages Spoken at Home, by State

1990 Language Data
Characteristics of American Indians and Alaska Natives by Tribe and Language
Home Language Use and English Ability, by State, Ages 5+
Home Language Use and English Ability, by State, Ages 5-17
Languages Spoken at Home, by State

Education Policy Studies Laboratory
Making Sense of Census 2000 (2002)
by James Crawford

National Center for Education Statistics
Are Limited English Proficient Students Being Taught by Teachers with LEP Training? (1996)

Dropout Rates in the United States: 2000
Language Minorities and Their Educational and Labor Market Indicators: Recent Trends (2004)
Schools and Staffing Survey: A Profile of Polices and Practices for Limited English Proficient Students (1997)

Status and Trends in the Education of Hispanics (2003)

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition
Defining the Limited-English Proficient Student Population (1996)
by Kris Anstrom  

The Growing Numbers of Limited English Proficient Students, 1993/94 – 2003/04
by NCELA  

Summary of the States' Limited English Proficient Students and Available Educational Programs and Services, 2000–2001 Summary Report
by Anneka Kindler

Pew Hispanic Center
The High Schools Hispanics Attend: Size and Other Key Characteristics (2005)
by Richard Fry
Hispanic Youth Dropping Out of U.S. Schools: Measuring the Challenge (2003)
by Richard Fry
Hispanics: A People in Motion (2005)
by PHC
Latino Youth and the Pathway to College (2004)
by Watson Scott Swail, Alberto F. Cabrera, and Chul Lee
Rise, Peak, and Decline: Trends in U.S. Immigration, 1992–2004 (2005)
by Jeffrey S. Passell and Roberto Suro

President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans
Our Nation on the Fault Line: Hispanic American Education (1996)

Ross Institute
Formulating Identity in a Globalized World (2003)
by
Carola Suárez-Orozco

Urban Institute
The New Demography of America's Schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act (2005)
by Randy Capps et al.
Overlooked and Underserved: Immigrant Students in U.S. Secondary Schools (2000)
by Jorge Ruíz de Velasco, Michael E. Fix, and Beatriz Clu Clewell

 
U.S. Immigration at the Beginning of the 21st Century (2001)
by Michael E. Fix and Jeffrey S. Passel
U.S. Immigration: Trends & Implications for Schools (2003)
by Michael E. Fix and Jeffrey S. Passel
Who's Left Behind: Immigrant Children in High and Low LEP Schools (2005)
by Clemencia Cosentino de Cohen, Nicole Deterding, and Beatriz Chu Clewell

U.S. Department of Homeland Security
2002 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics
 


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CHAPTER 2
Options for English Learners

California Department of Education
Annual Language Census

Center for Applied Linguistics
Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the United States
Heritage Languages Initiative

Center for the Education and Study of Diverse Populations
Comprehensive School Reform Models Addressing the Needs of English Language Learners (1999)
by Judith Wilde, Bruce Thompson, and Rosa María Herrera

Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence
Program Alternatives for Linguistically Diverse Students (1999)
edited by Fred Genesee  

ERIC Digests
Content-Centered Language Learning (1993)
by Joann Crandall
ESL and Bilingual Program Models (1993)
by Jeanne Rennie
Foreign Language Immersion Programs (1993)

by Miriam Met
From At-Risk to Excellence: Principles for Practice (1997)
by CREDE
A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education (1999)
by G. Richard Tucker
Promoting Successful Transition to the Mainstream: Effective Instructional Strategies for Bilingual Students (1999)
by the Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence
Ten Common Fallacies About Bilingual Education (1998)
by James Crawford
What Parents Want To Know About Foreign Language Immersion Programs (2003)
by Tara W. Fortune and Diane J. Tedick
Why Bilingual Education? (1997)
by Stephen Krashen

Language Policy Web Site
Bilingual Education, the Acquisition of English, and the Retention and Loss of Spanish (2000)
by Stephen Krashen

National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning
The Education of Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students: Effective Instructional Practices (1991)
by Eugene E. García
  Myths and Misconceptions about Second Language Learning: What Every Teacher Needs To Unlearn (1992)
by Barry McLaughlin

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition
Framing Effective Practice: Topics and Issues in Educating English Language Learners (2000)
Glossary of Terms Related to the Education of Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students
If Your Child Learns in Two Languages (2000)

by Nancy Zelasko and Beth Antunez

      Si Su Niño Aprende en Dos Idiomas
  The Newcomer Program: Helping Immigrant Students Succeed in U.S. Schools (1991)
by Monica Friedlander

Technology Trends and Their Potential for Bilingual Education (2000)
by Ana Bishop

TESOL Quarterly
  Reexamining English Only in the ESL Classroom (1993)
by Elsa Roberts Auerbach

U.S. Department of Education
  Excelencia para Todos – Excellence for All (2000)
by Richard W. Riley


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CHAPTER 3
Language Policies in the United States

ERIC Digests 
Language Policy and Planning (1988)

by David Robinson

Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the U.S. (2002)

by Richard D. Brecht and Catherine W. Ingold

European Union
Mercator: Linguistic Rights and Legislation

Executive Order 13166
Coordination and Review Section, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice
Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency (2000)
by President Bill Clinton  

Horace Kallen
Democracy Versus the Melting Pot (1915)

James Madison
The Federalist, No. 51 (1788)

Joint National Committee for Languages 
Language and National Security

Geoffrey Nunberg
The Official English Movement: Reimagining America (1992)

Theodore Roosevelt
The Children of the Crucible (1917) 

Alexis de Tocqueville
Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States, and Its Consequences
From Democracy in America, trans. Francis Bowen (1835)

Washington Post
The Myth of the Melting Pot: America's Racial and Ethnic Divides (1998)
Six-Part Series by William Booth


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CHAPTER 4
A Forgotten Legacy
 

John Adams
Proposal for an American Language Academy (1780)

J. D. C. Atkins
Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1887)

Bilingual Research Journal
Bilingual Education in the United States: Historical Development and Current Issues (2003)
by Carlos J. Ovando

California Constitutional Convention  
Debate on English-Only Provision (1879)

ERIC Clearinghouse for Linguistics
Educational Policy and Political Acceptance: The Imposition of English as the Language of Instruction in American Schools (1971)
by Arnold H. Leibowitz

Benjamin Franklin
Letter to Peter Collinson on Pennsylvania Germans (1753)

Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind (1751)

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
The Excluded Student: Educational Practices Affecting Mexican Americans in the Southwest 
(1972)
Language Rights and New Mexico Statehood (1972)

U.S. Supreme Court
Meyer v. Nebraska (1923)
 

Yale Law School
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)

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CHAPTER 5
The Evolution of Federal Policy

Federal Court Decisions
Castañeda v. Pickard
(1981)
5th Circuit Court of Appeals
Lau v. Nichols (1974)
U.S. Supreme Court
 
Plyler v. Doe (1982)
U.S. Supreme Court

Ríos v. Read (1978)
Eastern District of New York 
 
Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools (1974)
10th Circuit Court of Appeals

Federal Legislation
Bilingual Education Act of 1968
 •   1974 Reauthorization
 •   1978 Reauthorization
 •   1984 Reauthorization
 •   1988 Reauthorization
 •   1994 Reauthorization
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI

Language Policy Web Site 
La Educación Bilingüe en Estados Unidos: Política versus Pedagogía (2001)
by James Crawford
Language Politics in the U.S.A.: The Paradox of Bilingual Education (2000)

by James Crawford

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education 
The Bilingual Education Act: A Legislative Analysis (1980)
by Arnold H. Leibowitz
The Bilingual Education Act: Twenty Years Later (1988)

by Gloria Stewner-Manzanares

Rockefeller Foundation
Key Policy Milestones and Directions in the Education of English Language Learners (2001)
by Kenji Hakuta

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
The Education of Language Minority Students (2001)
by Kenji Hakuta

U.S. Office for Civil Rights 
Lau Remedies (1975)
Memorandum on School District Obligations to English Language Learners (1970) 
Policy Statement on LEP Students (1990) 
Policy Update (1991)
Programs for English Language Learners (1999) 
Provision of an Equal Educational Opportunity to Limited-English-Proficient Students (2000) 
Questions and Answers on the Rights of Limited-English-Proficient Students (2001)

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CHAPTER 6
English Only or English Plus?

American Civil Liberties Union 
Testimony against Official English Legislation (1995) 
by Edward M. Chen

Arizona Supreme Court 
Ruíz v. Hull (1998)

ERIC Digest
Official English and English Plus: An Update (1997)
by Vickie W. Lewelling

Language Policy Web Site 
Anatomy of the English Only Movement (2000)
by James Crawford 
Hispanophobia (1992)
by James Crawford 

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education  
Status Report on the Emergency Immigrant Education Program (1996)
by James Crawford

Stanford Working Group 
link Federal Education Programs for Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Blueprint for the Second Generation (1993)
by Kenji Hakuta et al. 

State Language Legislation
Ballot Measure No. 6 (Alaska, 1998)
Proposition 63 (California, 1986) 
Proposition 106 (Arizona, 1988)
English Plus Resolution (New Mexico, 1989)
Other States

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages 
Official English? No! (1996) 
by the Sociopolitical Concerns Committee

U.S. English 
Homepage

U.S. General Accounting Office
Bilingual Education: A New Look at the Research Evidence (1987)

Meeting the Needs of Students with Limited English Proficiency (2001)


U.S. House of Representatives

Compendium of Papers on the Topic of Bilingual Education (1986)
English Language Constitutional Amendments (hearing, 1988)  
English Language Empowerment Act (proposed legislation, 1996)  
English Language Empowerment Act (committee report, 1996)
 
English Language Empowerment Act (floor debate, 1996)

U.S. Senate
English Language Constitutional Amendment (proposed, 1981)


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CHAPTER 7
The Effectiveness Question

Bilingual Research Journal 
A Meta-Analysis of the Rossell and Baker Review of Bilingual Education Research (1998)
by Jay P. Greene

Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk  
Effective Reading Programs for English Language Learners: A Best-Evidence Synthesis (2003)
by Robert Slavin and Alan Cheung

Jim Cummins
Educational Research in Bilingual Education (1999)

Educational Policy
The Big Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Program Effectiveness Research on English Language Learners (2005)
by Kellie Rolstad, Kate Mahoney, and Gene V Glass

International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching  
The "Poor Quality" of Bilingual Education Research: An Examination of the Logic and Metric of Judgment (2005)
by Jeff McQuillan

Stephen Krashen  
A Note on Greene's Meta-Analysis (1998)

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education 
Best Evidence: Research Foundations of the Bilingual Education Act (1997)
by James Crawford

Bilingual Education: A Close Look at Its Effects (1980)
by Heidi Dulay and Marina Burt
Implications for U.S. Bilingual Education: Evidence from Canadian Research (1980)
by G. Richard Tucker
 

National Research Council 
Improving Schooling for Language-Minority Children: A Research Agenda (1997) 
edited by Diane August and Kenji Hakuta

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CHAPTER 8
Basic Research on Language Acquisition

Bilingual Research Journal
Do Some School-Age Children Have No Language? (2002)
by Jeff MacSwan, Kellie Rolstad, and Gene V Glass

Jim Cummins
Putting Language Proficiency in Its Place: Responding to Critiques of the Conversational/Academic Language Distinction (2000)

ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics 
What Teachers Need To Know about Language (2000)
by Lily Wong Fillmore and Catherine E. Snow

ERIC Digests 
Language Teaching Methodology (2001)
by Theodore S. Rogers

What Is Linguistics? (1992)
Center for Applied Linguistics
 
What We Can Learn from Foreign Language Teaching in Other Countries (2001)
by Ingrid Pufahl, Nancy C. Rhodes, and Donna Christian

Kenji Hakuta et al. 
Critical Evidence: A Test of the Critical Period Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition

Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 
The Threshold Hypothesis, Semilingualism, and Other Contributions to a Deficit (2000)
by Jeff MacSwan

Stephen Krashen
Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning (1981) 

Linguistic Minority Research Institute 
Review of Research on the Instruction of Limited English Proficient Students (1999)
by Patricia Gándara

National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning 
Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children: Principles and Practices (1995)
by Barry McLaughlin

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education 
Acquiring a Second Language for School (1995)
by Virginia Collier  

Bilingual Education: A Focus on Current Research (1991)
by Stephen Krashen 
Bilingualism and Bilingual Education: A Research Perspective (1990)
by Kenji Hakuta 

What Is the Length of Time It Takes Limited English Proficient Students To Acquire English and Succeed in an All-English Classroom? (2000)
by Gilbert N. García

WestEd 
Fostering Academic Success for English Language Learners: What Do We Know? (1999) 
by Robert Linquanti
 

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CHAPTER 9
Considering Program Alternatives

Bilingual Research Journal
Special Issue on the Ramírez Report (1992)

Jim Cummins
Beyond Adversarial Discourse: Searching for Common Ground in the Education of Bilingual Students (1998)

Research, Ethics, and Public Discourse: The Debate on Bilingual Education (1999)

ERIC Digests 
Interactive Language Learning on the Web (2002)
by Sally Morrison

Thematic, Communicative Language Teaching in the K–8 Classroom
(2000)
by Mari Haas

Stephen Krashen  
Comments on Johanna Haver, Structured English Immersion (2003)

Linguistic Minority Research Institute 
How Long Does It Take English Learners To Attain Proficiency? (2000) 
by Kenji Hakuta, Yuko Goto Butler, and Daria Witt

The Redesignation Dilemma: Challenges and Choices in Fostering Meaningful Accountability for English Learners (2001)
by Robert Linquanti

National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning 
Implications of the Ramírez Report (1992) 
by Courtney Cazden
Integrating Language and Content: Lessons from Immersion (1994)
by Fred Genesee

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education 
The Effect of Age on Acquisition of a Second Language for School (1988) 
by Virginia Collier  

The Two Faces of Bilingual Education (1980)
by Wallace E. Lambert

Ramírez Report
Final Report: Longitudinal Study of Structured English Immersion Strategy, Early-Exit and Late-Exit Transitional Bilingual Education Programs for Language-Minority Children – Executive Summary (1991)

READ Perspectives 
Mystery on the Bilingual Express: A Critique of the Thomas and Collier Study (1999)
by Christine Rossell

San Francisco Unified School District
Performance of Redesignated FEP Students (1998)

by J. David Ramírez

Thomas-Collier Research 
A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement (2002)

School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students (1997) 

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CHAPTER 10
The Case Studies Project 

California Department of Education
Case Studies in Bilingual Education, Year Two Report (1986)

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CHAPTER 11
Indian Language Education

Bilingual Research Journal 
Special issue on Indigenous Language Education and Literacy (1995)

edited by Teresa L.McCarty and Ofelia Zepeda

Center for Excellence in Education
Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Conferences (1996)
Seven Hypotheses on Language Loss: Causes and Cures (1996) 
by James Crawford

Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence
The Sociocultural Context of Hawaiian Language Revival and Learning (2002)
by Lois A. Yamauchi 

Cultural Survival
Cultural Survival vs. Forced Assimilation: The Renewed War on Diversity (2001)
by Jon Reyhner

Education Policy Studies Laboratory
Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools (2006) 
by Mary Eunice Romero Little and Teresa L. McCarty

Federal Legislation  
Native American Languages Act of 1990

Native American Languages Act of 1992

Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students
American Indian Language Policy and School Success (1993)
by Jon Reyhner

Language Policy Web Site
Endangered Native American Languages: What Is To Be Done, and Why? (1998) 
by James Crawford 

Northern Arizona University
Indigenous Languages Across the Community (2002)  
Learn in Beauty: Indigenous Education for a New Century (2000)
Nurturing Native Languages (2003)  
Revitalizing Indigenous Languages (1999)  
Teaching Indigenous Languages Web Site

U.S. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs
Hearing on the Native American Languages Act (excerpts, 1992)  
Proposed Amendments to the Native American Languages Act (2000)

Testimony by Michael E. Krauss and Teresa L. McCarty (2000)

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CHAPTER 12
Two-Way Bilingualism

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
Foreign Language Enrollments in Public Secondary Schools, Fall 2000 (2002)
by Jamie B. Draper and June H. Hicks

Bilingual Research Journal
Effective Bilingual Education: From Theory to Academic Achievement in a Two-Way Bilingual Program (2002)
by Ester de Jong
Two-Way Bilingual Immersion: A Portrait of Quality Schooling (2002)
by Barbara V. Kirk Senesac

Center for Applied Linguistics
Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the U.S.
Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education
Two-Way Immersion Frequently Asked Questions (2003)

Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence  
Becoming Bilingual in the Amigos Two-Way Immersion Program (1998)
by Mary T. Cazabon, Elena Nicoladis and Wallace E. Lambert
Designing and Implementing a Two-Way Immersion Education Program at the Elementary Level (2002)
by Elizabeth R. Howard and Donna Christian
Implementing Two-Way Immersion Programs in Secondary Schools (2000)
by Christopher L. Montone and Michael I. Loeb
A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement (2002)
by Wayne P. Thomas and Virginia P. Collier

Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk
Trends in Two-Way Immersion Education: A Review of the Research (2003)
by Elizabeth R. Howard, Julie Sugarman, and Donna Christian

ERIC Digests  
Impact of Two-Way Immersion on Students' Attitudes Toward School and College (2002)
by Kathryn J. Lindholm-Leary and Graciela Borsato  
In Their Own Words: Two-Way Immersion Teachers Talk About Their Professional Experiences (1998)
by Elizabeth R. Howard and Michael I. Loeb
Two-Way Bilingual Education Programs in Practice: A National and Local Perspective (1994)
by NCRCDSLL

Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics (2001)
by Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman
 

Heritage Language Journal  
Directions in Research: Intergenerational Transmission of Heritage Languages (2003)
 

Kathryn Lindholm-Leary 
Review of Research and Best Practices on Effective Features of Dual Language Education Programs (2005)
 

Multicultural Education
What Do We Know about Heritage Languages? (2003)
by Grace Cho, Fay Shin, and Stephen Krashen

National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning  
Two-Way Bilingual Education: A Progress Report on the Amigos Program (1993)
by Mary Cazabon, Wallace E. Lambert, and Geoff Hall

Two-Way Bilingual Education: Students Learning Through Two Languages (1994)
by Donna Christian

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education 
Biliteracy for Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education (2000)
by Kathryn J. Lindholm-Leary   
Dual Language Programs: Key Features and Results (2002)
by María E. Torres-Guzmán

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CHAPTER 13
Disaster at the Polls

Arizona Secretary of State
Voter Information Pamphlet on Proposition 203 (2000)

Bilingual Research Journal  
The Campaign against Proposition 227: A Post Mortem (1999)
by James Crawford

California Research Bureau
Educating California's Immigrant Children (1999)
by Patricia L. de Cos

California Secretary of State
Information Guide and Ballot Pamphlet on Proposition 227 (1998)

Colorado Legislative Council  
Analysis of Statewide Ballot Issues – Amendment 31 (2002) 
 

Democracy Center On-Line
Proposition 227 – The Morning After (1998)
by Jim Shultz
 

Harvard Graduate School of Education 
Tongue Tied: Bilingual Education in the Nation of Immigrants (2002)
Debate between Ron Unz and Catherine Snow

International Journal of the Sociology of Language 
Agenda for Inaction: A Critique of the National Research Council Report (2002)
by James Crawford 

Language Policy Web Site
Anti-Bilingual Initiative in California
Life after 227: The Struggle Continues
Life in a Politicized Climate: What Role for Educational Researchers? (1999)
by James Crawford

Massachusetts Secretary of State
Information for Voters on Question 2 (2002)

National Research Council
Improving Schooling for Language Minority Children: A Research Agenda (1997)
edited by Diane August and Kenji Hakuta

Memorandum on READ Institute Press Release (1997)
by Kenji Hakuta

Response to Rosalie Porter
by Diane August and Kenji Hakuta

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CHAPTER 14
No Child Left Untested 

ARC Associates
A Study of Content Area Assessments for English Language Learners (2004)
by Anne Katz, Patricia Low, Jim Stack, and Sau-Lim Tsang
 

California State Board of Education
English Language Development Standards, K–12 (1999) 

Center on Education Policy
From the Capital to the Classroom: Year 4 of the No Child Left Behind Act (2006)
by the Center on Education Policy

Education Policy Analysis Archives
¿Exito in California? A Validity Critique of Language Program Evaluations and Analysis of English Learner Test Scores (2002)
by Marilyn S. Thompson, Kristen E. DiCerbo, Kate Mahoney, and Jeff MacSwan

Education Policy Studies Laboratory
Evolution of Federal Policy and Implications of No Child Left Behind for Language Minority Students (2005)
by Wayne E. Wright

High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act (2005)
by Sharon L. Nichols, Gene V Glass, and David Berliner
Voices from the Classroom: A Statewide Survey of Experienced Third-Grade English Language Learner Teachers on the Impact of Language and High-Stakes Testing Policies in Arizona (2005)
by Wayne E. Wright and Daniel Choi

ERIC Digests
English Language Learners and High-Stakes Tests: An Overview of the Issues (2002)
by Bronwyn Coltrane
The ESL Standards: Bridging the Academic Gap for English Language Learners (2000)
by Deborah J. Short  
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Testing (1996)
by Linda A. Bond
Practical Ideas on Alternative Assessment for ESL Students (1996)
by Jo-Ellen Tannenbaum

Will the National Education Goals Improve the Progress of English Language Learners? (1993)
by Charlene Rivera and Mark LaCelle-Peterson

FairTest
Failing Our Children: How "No Child Left Behind" Undermines Quality and Equity in Education (2004)
by Monty Neill, Lisa Guisabond, and Bob Shaeffer

Federal Legislation
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
     •   Title I: Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged
     •   Title III: Language Instruction for LEP and Immigrant Students
     •   Title VII: Indian, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native Education

Harvard Civil Rights Project
Listening to Teachers: Classroom Realities and the No Child Left Behind Act (2004)
by Gail L. Sunderman, Christopher A. Tracey, Jimmy Kim, and Gary Orfield
The Unraveling of No Child Left Behind: How Negotiated Changes Transform the Law (2006)
by Gail L. Sunderman

Stephen Krashen
Don't Trust Ed Trust (2002)
False Claims about Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Skills vs. Whole Language, and Recreational Reading (2003)

Second Language "Standards for Success": Out of Touch with Language Acquisition Research (2003)

National Association for Bilingual Education
No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners (2004)
by James Crawford
Proposed Title I Regulations for English Language Learners: Comments (2004)
by James Crawford

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education
Setting Expected Gains for Non and Limited English Proficient Students (1997)
by Edward De Avila

What Are the Critical Issues in Wide-Scale Assessment of English Language Learners? (2000)
by Kate Menken

National Conference of State Legislatures
Task Force on No Child Left Behind: Final Report (2005)
by NCSL
 

National Indian Education Association
Preliminary Report on No Child Left Behind in Indian Country (2005) 
by NIEA


New Politics
NCLB: A Progressive Response (2005)


New York State Department of Education
Learning Standards for English as a Second Language

OBEMLA Research Symposium
Bilingualism and Literacy: Problem or Opportunity? A Synthesis of Reading Research on Bilingual Children (2000)

by J. David
Ramírez
Bilingual Means Two: Assessment Issues, Early Literacy, and Spanish-Speaking Children (2000)
by Kathy Escamilla

Rethinking Schools Online
The No Child Left Behind Act
 

Stanford Working Group 
Federal Education Programs for Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Blueprint for the Second Generation (1993)
by Kenji Hakuta et al. 

U.S. Department of Education 
Biennial Report to Congress on the Implementation of the State Formula Grant Program (2005)
by the Office of English Language Acquisition

Gateway to the No Child Left Behind Act

Nonregulatory Guidance on Title III Standards, Assessments, and Accountability (2003)
by the Office of English Language Acquisition
Monitoring Reports on State Formula Grant (Title III) Program

Proposed Title I Regulations for English Language Learners (2004)

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CHAPTER 15
Advocating for English Learners

American Institutes for Research and WestEd
Effects of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners, K–12:  Final Report (2006)
     •   Appendices (2006)
  •   Year 4 Report (2004)
  •   Year 2 Report (2002)
  •   Year 1 Report (2001)

Bilingual Research Journal 
Does Research Matter? An Analysis of Media Opinion on Bilingual Education, 1984–1994 (1996)
by Jeff McQuillan and Lucy Tse 
Special Issue on the Implementation of Proposition 227 (2000)
edited by Eugene E. García
Special Issue on Language-Minority Education in Arizona (2005)
edited by Terrence G. Wiley, Mario Castro, and Gerda de Klerk

Education Policy Studies Laboratory
Academic Achievement of English Language Learners in Post Proposition 203 Arizona (2005)
by Wayne E. Wright and Chang Pu

"Accountability" Versus Science in the Bilingual Education Debate (2003) 
by James Crawford

The Condition of English Language Learners in Arizona: 2005
by Kate Mahoney, Jeff MacSwan, and Marilyn Thompson

Hard Sell: Why Is Bilingual Education so Unpopular with the American Public? (2003) 
by James Crawford 

ERIC Digest 
Local Advocacy for Second Language Education: A Case Study in New Mexico (1990)
by Mary de López, Nancy Lawrence, and María Montalvo

Norm Gold
Bilingual Schools Show Substantial Promise (2004)

Kenji Hakuta et al.
What Can We Learn About the Impact of Proposition 227 from SAT-9 Scores? (2000)

Language Policy Web Site
Bilingual Education: Arguments (1999)
by Stephen Krashen
 
The Bilingual Education Story: Why Can’t the News Media Get It Right? (1998)
by James Crawford
A Few Things Ron Unz Would Prefer You Didn't Know About English Learners in California (2003)
by James Crawford
Why Did Test Scores Go up in (2001)
by Stephen Krashen

Linguistic Minority Research Institute
The Inequitable Treatment of English Learners in California Public Schools (2003)
by Patricia Gándara and Russell Rumberger 

Multilingual Educator
How Much Do Parents Know about Bilingual Education and Immersion? Reasons for Optimism (2004)
by Augustine García and Stephen Krashen

Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund
 
Beyond Bilingual Education: Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners in the New York City Public Schools (2002)
by Shelley Rappaport

Valeria G. v. Wilson 
Documents from Civil-Rights Litigation on Proposition 227 (1998):
•    Plaintiffs’ Legal Brief Requesting Preliminary Injunction
•    Responding Brief by Intervenors Ron Unz and Alice Callaghan
•    Declarations by Plaintiffs’ Authorities Kenji Hakuta and Lily Wong Fillmore
•    Declarations by Defendants’ Authorities Charles Glenn, Rosalie Porter, and Christine Rossell
•    Decision by Denying Request for Preliminary Injunction


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ERIC Digests

Academic Achievement in a Second Language (1991)
by Vickie W. Lewelling
Alternative Assessment and Second Language Study (1994)
by Charles R. Hancock
Brain Research: Implications for Second Language Learning (2000)
by Fred Genesee
Content-Centered Language Learning (1993)
by Joann Crandall
English Language Learners and High-Stakes Tests: An Overview of the Issues (2002)
by Bronwyn Coltrane

English Language Learners with Special Needs: Effective Instructional Strategies (2001)
by Alba Ortiz

ESL and Bilingual Program Models (1993)
by Jeanne Rennie
Dialogue Journals: Interactive Writing to Develop Language and Literacy (1993)
by Joy Kreeft Peyton 
Enhancing Authentic Language Learning Experiences through Internet Technology (2000)
by Jean W. LeLoup and Robert Ponterio  
The ESL Standards: Bridging the Academic Gap for English Language Learners (2000)
by Deborah J. Short
Examining Latino Paraeducators' Interactions with Latino Students (2000)
by CREDE
Foreign Language Immersion Programs (1993)
by Miriam Met
Foreign Languages and International Business (1992)
by Geoffrey M. Voght and Ray Schaub
From At-Risk to Excellence: Principles for Practice (1997)
by the Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence
A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education (1999)
by G. Richard Tucker
Heritage Spanish Speakers' Language Learning Strategies (2002)
by Zennia Hancock 
Impact of Two-Way Immersion on Students' Attitudes Toward School and College (2002)
by Kathryn J. Lindholm-Leary and Graciela Borsato
Interactive Language Learning on the Web (2002)
by Sally Morrison
In Their Own Words: Two-Way Immersion Teachers Talk About Their Professional Experiences (1998)  
by Elizabeth R. Howard and Michael I. Loeb
Language Teaching Methodology (2001)
by Theodore S. Rogers
Language Policy and Planning (1988)
by David Robinson
Local Advocacy for Second Language Education: A Case Study in New Mexico (1990)
by Mary de López, Nancy Lawrence, and María Montalvo
More Than Just the Internet: Technology for Language Teaching (1997)
by Samantha Earp 
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Testing (1996)
by Linda A. Bond

Official English and English Plus: An Update (1997)
by Vickie W. Lewelling
Practical Ideas on Alternative Assessment for ESL Students (1996)
by Jo-Ellen Tannenbaum
Professional Development for Teachers in Culturally Diverse Schools (1999)
by Nancy Clair and Carolyn Temple Adger
Programs That Prepare Teachers To Work Effectively with Students Learning English (2000)
by Josué M. González and Linda Darling-Hammond
Promoting Secondary School Transitions for Immigrant Adolescents (1996)
by Tamara Lucas
Promoting Successful Transition to the Mainstream: Effective Instructional Strategies for Bilingual Students (1999)
by CREDE
Referring Language Minority Students to Special Education (1991)
by Paula Olson 
The Role of Styles and Strategies in Second Language Learning (1989)
by Rebecca Oxford
Secondary Newcomer Programs: Helping Recent Immigrants Prepare for School Success (1998)
by Deborah J. Short
Spanish for Spanish Speakers: Developing Dual Language Proficiency (2001)
by Joy Kreeft Peyton, Vickie W. Lewelling, and Paula Winke 
Strategies for Success: Engaging Immigrant Students in Secondary Schools (2000)
by Aída Walqui
Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the U.S. (2002)
by Richard D. Brecht and Catherine W. Ingold
Teaching Educators about Language: Principles, Structures, and Challenges (2000)
by Nancy Clair  
Teaching Mathematics to Limited English Proficient Students (1989)
by Deborah J. Short and George Spanos  
Technology and Second Language Learning (1992)
by Karen Willetts
Ten Common Fallacies About Bilingual Education (1998)
by James Crawford
Thematic, Communicative Language Teaching in the K–8 Classroom (2000)
by Mari Haas
Two-Way Bilingual Education Programs in Practice: A National and Local Perspective (1994)
by NCRCDSLL
 
Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics (2001)
by Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman
Vernacular Dialects in U.S. Schools (1997)
by Donna Christian 

We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the ESL Classroom (1995)
by Spencer Kagan

What Elementary Teachers Need To Know about Language (2000)  
What Is Linguistics? (1992)
Center for Applied Linguistics  
What Parents Want To Know About Foreign Language Immersion Programs (2003)
by Tara W. Fortune and Diane J. Tedick 
What We Can Learn from Foreign Language Teaching in Other Countries (2001)
by Ingrid Pufahl, Nancy C. Rhodes, and Donna Christian 
Why Bilingual Education? (1997)
by Stephen Krashen 
Will the National Education Goals Improve the Progress of English Language Learners? (1993)
by Charlene Rivera and Mark LaCelle-Peterson


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Online Journals

Bilingual Research Journal

Educational Leadership
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
 

Educational Policy Analysis Archives
Arizona State University

Educational Researcher
American Educational Research Association

Education Week

ERIC Digests
Center for Applied Linguistics

Heritage Language Journal 

IDRA Newsletter
Intercultural Development Research Association
 

International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism

Internet TESL Journal

Journal of Language, Identity, and Education

Language Magazine

Rethinking Schools

TESL Electronic Journal


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Professional Organizations

California Association for Bilingual Education (CABE)

California Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (CATESOL)

Illinois Association for Multilingual Multicultural Education (IAMME)

Massachusetts Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (MATSOL)

National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE)

New Jersey Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages/New Jersey Bilingual Educators (NYTESOL/NJBE)

New Mexico Association for Bilingual Education (NMABE)

New York State Association for Bilingual Education (NYSABE)

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) 

Texas Association for Bilingual Education (TABE)



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Resource Centers

BUENO Center for Multicultural Education
University of Colorado, Boulder

Center for Applied Linguistics
Washington, D.C.

Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research
University of Southern California

Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence
University of California, Berkeley

Equity Assistance Center Network

Illinois Resource Center
Des Plaines, Illinois

Intercultural Development Resource Association
San Antonio, Texas

Linguistic Minority Research Institute
University of California system

National Clearinghouse for English Language Education
(NCELA: formerly National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education)

Government Sources

California Department of Education – English Learners

Florida Department of Education – English Language Learners

Illinois State Board of Education – English Language Learning

Massachusetts Department of Education – English Language Learners

New Jersey Department of Education – Bilingual/ESL Education

Texas Education Agency – Bilingual and English as a Second Language Education Programs

U.S. Department of Education – Office of English Language Acquisition


Other Web Sites of Interest 

James Crawford's Language Policy Web Site

Jim Cummins's ESL and Second Language Learning Web

Dave's ESL Cafe

FairTest

Kenji Hakuta's Home Page

Stephen Krashen Books and Articles Online

Native Web: Resources for Indigenous Cultures around the World

NoChildLeft.com

SusanOhanian.Org

Teaching Indigenous Languages


 
Copyright © 2006, 2015 by James Crawford. All rights reserved.